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Progress of nano-technologies and the study of the new principles of the construction of electronic and optics, places the problem of developing of the physical models, which adequately describe their work. The promising possibilities present the regular structures, which were formed on the surface of semiconductor material.
It is known that the special surface properties are connected with the disturbance in one of the directions of a strict periodicity of crystal lattice, with the break of the translational symmetry of crystal. Its properties are differed from the properties of crystal in the volume and formation on the surface of some topological special features can reveal the unexpected possibilities for creating fundamentally new type solid-state elements.
The properties of solid surface are used by humanity very long ago, it is worthwhile to recall about the mirrors, or about such elements, widely used in optics as the diffraction gratings, basis of which is regular structure from the annular or linear slots or the grooves on the solid surface. Optics traditionally examines three phenomena: diffraction, interference and light polarization.
Another phenomenon of interaction of electromagnetic radiation with the substance, which leads to this effect, as the polarization of charges in the semiconductor or the dielectric is studied traditionally by solid state physics. There is one additional division of science and technology, connected with the application of regular structures – radiophysics and radio engineering. The basis of any antenna are the regularly located in the space conducting and dielectric devices. Recently great interest causes the development of the so-called fractal antennas, basis of which is the fractal configuration, which substantially improves the characteristics of antenna.
The unexpected possibilities for the use in scientific studies and technology offer the so-called self-affine structures on the surface of semiconductor plate.
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